; in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland.

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Leiden is a typical university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city and the many students from all over the world give the city a bustling, vivid and international atmosphere.

Many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden’s motto: ‘City of Discoveries’.

He rolled the cannons with his army but one which was too heavy went by ship.

By firing at the walls and gates with iron balls the citadels fell one by one.

It is twinned with Oxford, the location of the United Kingdom's oldest university.

Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences (Leidse Hogeschool) together have around 35,000 students.

On 17 August 1420, after a two-month siege the city surrendered to John of Bavaria.

The burgrave Filips of Wassenaar was stripped of his offices and rights and lived out his last years in captivity. At the close of the 15th century the weaving establishments (mainly broadcloth) of Leiden were very important, and after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms.

Besieged from May until October 1574 by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town.